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        Professor Morwenna Griffiths

All Publications

This page lists all publications. For publications on specific areas see

Philosophy of Education

Social Justice

Feminism

Methodology

Reflective Practice

Auto/biography and Personal Narrative

Other research including visual methods and arts-based learning

Griffiths, Morwenna, 'Social justice and educational delights.' Paper presented at The Philosophy of Education Society of Great Britain Annual Conference, Oxford, 2010

Griffiths, Morwenna, ‘Research and the Self’ in Biggs, M. and Karlsson, H. (eds.)  Routledge Companion to Research in the Arts Routledge, 2010 (with examples written by Tony  Gemmell, Nettie Scriven, Peter Rumney, Irinya Kuksa,  Sara Giddens, and Simon Jones)      Abstract

Griffiths, Morwenna,  Tony Gemmell and Bob Kibble, What kind of research culture do teacher educators want, and how can we get it? Studying Teacher Education, 2010 6 (2)        Abstract

Griffiths, Morwenna, 'Justice, joy and educational delights' Inaugural Lecture, Moray House School of Education, Edinburgh University. 2009                

Griffiths, Morwenna, Heather Malcolm and Zoe Williamson, ‘Faces and Spaces and Doing Research’ in Tidwell, D.L., Heston, M.L. and Fitzgerald, L.M. (eds) Research Methods for the Self-Study of Practice, Springer 2009        Abstract

Griffiths, Morwenna and Gale Macleod, ‘Personal narratives and policy: never the twain?’ in Bridges, D., Smeyers, P. and Smith, R. (eds) Evidence-based Education Policy Wiley 2009

And in:

Griffiths, Morwenna and Gale Macleod,  ‘Personal narratives and policy: never the twain?’ Journal of Philosophy of Education 2008 42 (s1).     Abstract

Griffiths, Morwenna. (2009) Critical Approaches in qualitative educational research. Accessed on-line at http://www.bera.ac.uk/critical-approaches-in-qualitative-educational-research      Abstract

Morwenna Griffiths, ‘Action research for/as/mindful of social justice’ in Bridget Somekh and Susan Noffke (eds.) Handbook of Educational Action Research, Sage (2009).      Abstract

Morwenna Griffiths and Hamish Ross, ‘Public space, participation and expressive arts’ in Bob Lingard, Jon Nixon and Stewart Ransom (eds.) Transforming Learning, Continuum (2008)      Abstract

Morwenna Griffiths, What kind of research evidence should our leaders use? Scottish Educational Review, 40 (1) 2008

Morwenna Griffiths and Felicity Woolf, The Nottingham apprenticeship model: schools in partnership with artists and creative practitioners, British Educational Research Journal, 34 (4) 2008

Joan Cutting, Richard Easton, Tony Gemmell, Morwenna Griffiths, Neil Houston, Bob Kibble, Heather Malcolm, Jannet Robinson, Hamish Ross, 'Building a Research Culture in a Teacher Education Environment:  What kind of research culture do we want? And how do we get it?' European Conference on Educational Research, Ghent, September 2007

Morwenna Griffiths, ‘Being Naughty to be Good: Playing at/as being Authentic’ in Deborah Orr and Diana Taylor (eds.) Lessons from the Gynaeceum: Women Philosophizing — Past, Present and Future, Rowman and Littlefield (2007).     Abstract

Morwenna Griffiths and Jean Barr, ‘The nature of knowledge and lifelong learning' in David Aspin (ed.) Philosophical Perspectives on Lifelong Learning, Springer Press (2007)      Abstract 

Morwenna Griffiths, (with Judy Berry, Anne Holt, John Naylor and Philippa Weekes) ‘Learning to be in public spaces: in from the margins with dancers, sculptors, painters and musicians' in Chris Gaine, Ghazala Bhatti, Yvonne Leeman and Francesca Gobbo (eds.) Social Justice and Intercultural Education: an Open-Ended Dialogue, Trentham 2007      Abstract

Peter Bowbrick and Morwenna Griffiths, Girls’ Schooldays in Ruddington Remembered 2007) Ruddington, Nottinghamshire: Ruddington Village Museum

Peter Bowbrick and Morwenna Griffiths, Boys’ Schooldays in Ruddington Remembered 2007) Ruddington, Nottinghamshire: Ruddington Village Museum

Morwenna Griffiths and Tony Cotton, Action research, stories and practical philosophy, Educational Action Research, 15 (4) 2007      Abstract

Morwenna Griffiths, Judy Berry, Anne Holt. John Naylor and Philippa Weekes) Learning to be in public spaces: in from the margins with dancers, sculptors, painters and musicians, British Journal of Educational Studies (Special Issue on Social Justice) (54 (3) 2006.       Abstract

Morwenna Griffiths, ‘The feminization of teaching and the practice of teaching: threat or opportunity? Educational Theory 56(4) Fall 2006     Abstract

Morwenna Griffiths, Joseph Windle and Margaret Simms ‘“That’s what I am here for”: Images of working lives of academic and support staff in D. Tidwell and L. Fitzgerald (eds.) Self-study and Diversity New York: Springer 2006

Morwenna Griffiths, A feminist perspective on communities of practice Socio-cultural Theory in Educational Research and Practice, Manchester, September, 2005

Morwenna Griffiths 'Being naughty: a play for justice?' Inaugural Lecture, Nottingham Trent University.

Morwenna Griffiths and Dina Poursanidou, ‘A self-study of collaborations among teacher educators’ Studying Teacher Education 1 (2) 2005      Abstract

Morwenna Griffiths and Felicity Woolf, Report on Creative Partnerships Nottingham Action Research for Creative Partnerships Nottingham  Published 2004

Morwenna Griffiths and Felicity Woolf, The Nottingham apprenticeship model: schools in partnership with artists and creative practitioners, British Educational Research Journal, 34 (4) 2008

Morwenna Griffiths, in dialogue with Lis Bass, Marilyn Johnston and Victoria Perselli ‘Knowledge, social justice, and self-study’ in J. Loughran, M.L. Hamilton, V. LaBoskey and T. Russell (eds.) International Handbook of Self-Study of Teaching and Teacher Education Practices New York: Kluwer 2004      Abstract

Morwenna Griffiths, Action for Social Justice in Education: Fairly Different Buckingham: Open University Press 2003    Abstract

Morwenna Griffiths and Jean Barr, ‘Training the imagination to “go visiting”‘ in M. Walker and J. Nixon (eds.) Reclaiming Universities from a Runaway World Buckingham, Open University Press 2003   Abstract  

Morwenna Griffiths, ‘Ten principles of social justice in educational research: two cases of contract research’ Review Journal of Philosophy and the Social Sciences 27 (2) 2002

Morwenna Griffiths and Maxine Greene, ‘Feminism, philosophy and education: imagining public spaces’ in N. Blake, P. Smeyers, R. Smith and P. Standish (eds.) The Blackwell Guide to the Philosophy of Education Oxford: Basil Blackwell 2002.    Abstract

Morwenna Griffiths and Joseph Windle, Helping teacher educators learn to research: bread and roses? Fourth International Conference of the Self-study of Teacher Education Practices at Herstmonceux Castle, Sussex August 2002

Morwenna Griffiths, ‘Questions of personal autonomy’ in K.W.M. Fulford, D.L. Dickenson and T.M. Murray (eds.) The Blackwell Reader in Healthcare Ethics Oxford: Basil Blackwell 2002.     Abstract

Morwenna Griffiths, ‘“Nothing grand”: small tales and working for social justice’ in J. Loughran and T. Russell (eds.) Reframing Teacher Education Practices: Exploring meaning through self-study Falmer Press 2002

Deborah Chetcuti and Morwenna Griffiths, ‘The implications for student self-esteem of ordinary differences in different schools: the cases of Malta and England’ British Educational Research Journal 28 (4) 2002     Abstract

Morwenna Griffiths and Mitja Sardoc, The School Field: Special Issue on Justice in/and Education 2001/2      Abstract

Morwenna Griffiths, ‘Social justice for education: what kind of theory is needed?’ The School Field (Special Issue: Justice in/and Education) XII (1/2) 2001 T    Abstract

Morwenna Griffiths, ‘Theorising social justice for education’ Annual Conference of the Philosophy of Education Society of Great Britain Oxford April 2000

Morwenna GriffithsThe role of the education librarian in education research: A user’s perspective.’ Education Libraries Journal 42 2000

Morwenna Griffiths, Richard Winter and Kath Green ‘The academic qualities of practice: what are the criteria for a practice-based doctorate?’ Studies in Higher Education 25 (1) 2000

Morwenna Griffiths and Graham Impey, Working Partnerships: Better Research and Learning Nottingham Trent University 2000     Abstract

Morwenna Griffiths, ‘Collaboration and partnership in question: knowledge, politics and practiceJournal of Education Policy (Special Issue: Philosophical Perspectives on Education Policy) 15 (4) 2000      Abstract

Morwenna Griffiths, ‘ “Nothing Grand”: Small tales and working for social justice’ Third International Conference of the Self-study of Teacher Education Practices at Herstmonceux Castle, Sussex August 2000

Morwenna Griffiths, ‘Playing at/as being authentic’ in J. Swift (ed.) Art Education Discourses: Leaf and Seed Birmingham:ARTicle Press 1999

Morwenna Griffiths, ‘Aiming for a fair education: what use is philosophy?’ in R. Marples (ed.) Aims of Education London and New York: Routledge 1999

Morwenna Griffiths, ‘Principles of social justice in educational research: the case of contract research’ The School Field X (1/2) (1999)    Abstract

Morwenna Griffiths, ‘Towards a theoretical framework for understanding social justice in educational practice Educational Philosophy and Theory 30 (2) 1998

Morwenna Griffiths, 'Telling Stories about Collaboration: Secrets and Lies?' Paper presented at BERA 1998 in the Symposium: Narrative/Fiction and the Art of Research

Morwenna Griffiths, Educational Research for Social Justice: Getting off the Fence Buckingham: Open University Press 1998 Abstract

Morwenna Griffiths, David Bridges and Wilfred Carr Cambridge Journal of Education: Special issue on Philosophy and Educational Research 1997.      Abstract

Morwenna Griffiths and Margaret Whitford, Women Review Philosophy: New Writing by Women in Philosophy Nottingham University 1996     Abstract

Morwenna Griffiths, Feminisms and the Self: The Web of Identity London and New York: Routledge 1995      Abstract

Morwenna Griffiths, ‘Feminist perspectives on the use of life narratives in a primary classroom’ in D. Thomas (ed.) Teachers’ Stories Buckingham: Open University Press 1995

Morwenna Griffiths and Carol Davies, In Fairness to Children: Working for Social Justice in the Primary School London: David Fulton 1995      Abstract

Morwenna Griffiths, ‘Self-determination and learning to be cruel: gender, race and the construction of self in relation to bullying and harassmentEuropean Journal of Women’s Studies 98 (2) 1998

Morwenna Griffiths, ‘The discourses of social justice in schoolsBritish Educational Research Journal 24 (3) 1998    Abstract

Morwenna Griffiths, ‘Towards a theoretical framework for understanding social justice in educational practice’ Educational Philosophy and Theory 30 (2) 1998

Morwenna Griffiths, ‘Why teachers and philosophers need each other: philosophy and educational researchCambridge Journal of Education (Special Issue: Philosophy and Educational Research) 27 (2) 1997      Abstracts

Morwenna Griffiths, ‘Know thyself: philosophy/self-study’ First International Conference of the Self-study of Teacher Education Practices) Herstmonceux, Sussex August 1996

Morwenna Griffiths and Carol Davies, ‘Insults and injuries: bullying and harassment in primary schools’ Current Research in Early Childhood 79 (Spring) 1996

Morwenna Griffiths and Carol Davies, ‘Learning to learn: action research from an equal opportunities perspective in a junior school’ British Educational Research Journal 19 (1) 1993       Abstract

Morwenna Griffiths, ‘Making a difference: feminism, postmodernism and the methodology of educational researchBritish Educational Research Journal 21 (2) 1995      Abstract

Morwenna Griffiths and Barry Troyna, Anti-racism, Culture and Social Justice in Education Stoke: Trentham 1995

Morwenna Griffiths, ‘Auto/biography and epistemologyEducational Review 47 (1) 1995      Abstract

Morwenna Griffiths and Marie Parker-Jenkins, ‘Methodological and ethical dilemmas in international research: school attendance and gender in GhanaOxford Review of Education 20 (4) 1994.      Abstract  

Morwenna Griffiths, ‘Feminism, feelings and philosophy (selection)’ in D.C. Abel Fifty Readings in Philosophy New York: McGraw Hill 1994

Morwenna Griffiths, ‘Autobiography, feminism and the practice of action-research’ International Journal of Educational Action Research 2 (1) 1994

Morwenna Griffiths, ‘Self-identity and self-esteem: achieving equality in educationOxford Review of Education 19 (3) 1993      Abstract

Morwenna Griffiths, ‘Educational change and the self’ British Journal of Educational Studies 41 (2) 1993

Morwenna Griffiths and Anne Seller, ‘The politics of identity, the politics of the self’ Women: A Cultural Review (Special Issue: Gendering philosophy) 3 (2) 1992

Morwenna Griffiths, Self-identity, Self-esteem, and Social Justice Nottingham: University of Nottingham 1992

Morwenna Griffiths, ‘Autonomy and the fear of dependence’ Women’s Studies International Forum 15 (3) 1992      Abstract

 Morwenna Griffiths and Sarah Tann, ‘Using reflective practice to link personal and public theories’ Journal of Education for Teaching 18 (1) 1992

Morwenna Griffiths and Anne Seller, ‘The politics of identity, the politics of the self’ Women: A Cultural Review (Special Issue: Gendering philosophy) 3 (2) 1992  

Morwenna Griffiths and Sarah Tann, ‘Ripples in the reflection’ in P. Lomax (ed.) Managing Better Schools and Colleges: an action research approach Clevedon: Multilingual Matters 1991

Morwenna Griffiths and Kate Ashcroft, ‘Action research in teacher education’ in O. Zuber-Skerritt (ed.) Action Research in Higher Education Brisbane: Griffith University 1991

Morwenna Griffiths, ‘Action research: grassroots practice or management tool?’ in P. Lomax (ed.) Managing Staff Development in Schools Clevedon: Multilingual Matters 1990

Morwenna Griffiths and Kate Ashcroft, ‘Reflective teachers and reflective tutors: school experience in an initial teacher education course’ Journal of Education for Teaching 15 (1) 1989

Morwenna Griffiths and Margaret Whitford Feminist Perspectives in Philosophy London and Indiana: Macmillan, and Indiana University Press 1988.  Abstract

Morwenna Griffiths and Margaret Whitford, ‘Introduction’ in M. Griffiths and M. Whitford (eds.) Feminist Perspectives in Philosophy London: Macmillan, and Indiana University Press 1988

Morwenna Griffiths, ‘Feminism, feelings and philosophy’ in M. Griffiths and M. Whitford (eds.) Feminist Perspectives in Philosophy London: Macmillan, and Indiana University Press 1988

Morwenna Griffiths, ‘Why philosophy needs feminism’ Cogito 3 (3) 1989.        Abstract

Morwenna Griffiths and Richard Smith, ‘Standing alone: dependence, independence and interdependence’ Journal of Philosophy of Education 23 (2) 1989      Abstract

Morwenna Griffiths, ‘Strong feelings about computers’ Women’s Studies International Forum 11 (2) 1988      Abstract

Morwenna Griffiths and Margaret Alfrey, ‘Girls and computers in primary schools’ Journal of Curriculum Studies 20 (5) 1988

Morwenna Griffiths, ‘Teaching skills and the skills of teaching’ Journal of Philosophy of Education 21 (2) 1987

Morwenna Griffiths, ‘Hirst’s forms of knowledge and Korner’s categorial frameworks’ Oxford Review of Education 12 (2) 1986      Abstract

Morwenna Griffiths, ‘Vigilance, subversion and imagination about computers’ The European Conference on Women, Natural Sciences and Technology, Aalborg, Denmark, 1986

Morwenna Griffiths, ‘Dunlop, expression and emotion’ Journal of Philosophy of Education 19 (2) 1985.      Abstract

Morwenna Griffiths, ‘Emotions and education’ Journal of Philosophy of Education 18 (2) 1984.       Abstract

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Griffiths, Morwenna, ‘Research and the Self’ in Biggs, M. and Karlsson, H. (eds.)  Routledge Companion to Research in the Arts Routledge, 2010 (with examples written by Tony  Gemmell, Nettie Scriven, Peter Rumney, Irinya Kuksa,  Sara Giddens, and Simon Jones)  This chapter considers the role of the self in research. It argues that arts-based practice-based research needs to address the issue of the self of the researcher.  It shows the significance of self within the processes and in its outcomes, whether these are propositions, descriptions, explanations, theories, artefacts, changed practices or changed understandings.  In Section 1, I present a brief overview of the theory of the self which informs the argument of the chapter. In Section 2, I outline the logic of research processes from the initial conception of a research project through to its end. Section 3 contains three examples of different kinds of on-going, arts-based, practice-based research which are used to ground the subsequent discussion of how the self enters into arts-based research, and the implications of this for researchers. Section 4 draws on the examples in Section 3 to provide an overview of the intersections of self and research. Section 5 addresses criticisms sometimes levelled at arts-based, practice based research focused on its partiality. The final section concludes with some remarks about the significance of acknowledging the place of the self in research.

Griffiths, Morwenna,  Tony Gemmell and Bob Kibble, What kind of research culture do teacher educators want, and how can we get it? Studying Teacher Education, 2010 6 (2) This paper describes a collaborative research journey involving nine teacher-educators.  Their common purpose was to find a research identity in a university department with a strong commitment to the education and training of student teachers but which existed within a university that prided itself on maintaining a reputation for research excellence. The methodology was inextricably linked to the decision to take a journey as a group. The journey, both route and progress, became the focus of our self study through a number of exchange platforms including collaborative meetings, agendas which embraced equity and social justice, a shared blog space for self-reflection and engagement with others via partnership conferences. Data was qualitative, and used to reflect on the ambitions, frustrations, and achievements of the participants as revealed through personal stories. Key findings of this study include (i) the discovery of hurdles, false starts and frustrations which were common to all members of the group but which hitherto had remained hidden and private, (ii) the tension between an identity as educator with a sense of responsibility to students and that of an active researcher (iii) issues of time and work balance between teaching and researching.

Griffiths, Morwenna, 'Justice, joy and educational delights' Inaugural Lecture, Moray House School of Education, Edinburgh University. 2009  Word

Griffiths, Morwenna, Heather Malcolm and Zoe Williamson, ‘Faces and Spaces and Doing Research’ in Tidwell, D.L., Heston, M.L. and Fitzgerald, L.M. (eds) Research Methods for the Self-Study of Practice, Springer 2009  Where do teacher educators find spaces and places for research? Especially given their increasingly busy lives and all the competing demands on their time. This was the question that five of us, all working in a teacher education department, asked of ourselves at the outset of our self-study.  The study used visual methods and was rooted in an overarching set of ethical and epistemological principles. The specific methods and processes varied, including variation in the use of the visual at different stages of the research. In this chapter (1) we give a brief overview of the overarching principles. (2) We then go on to summarise how the Nottingham studies were carried out, and (3) show how the Edinburgh study was influenced by them in articulating the research question. (4) In the main body of the paper we go on to report on the Edinburgh study. (4.1) We discuss the methods used to gather evidence  and (4.2) ways in which the evidence was analysed in order to (4.3) draw conclusions. (5) At the end of the chapter we bring out how our own practice has been affected. We suggest how readers might use a similar visual methodology in their own self-studies.

Griffiths, Morwenna and Gale Macleod, ‘Personal narratives and policy: never the twain?’ in Bridges, D., Smeyers, P. and Smith, R. (eds) Evidence-based Education Policy Wiley 2009

And in:

Griffiths, Morwenna and Gale Macleod,  ‘Personal narratives and policy: never the twain?’ Journal of Philosophy of Education 2008 42 (s1). In this paper the extent to which stories and personal narratives can and should be used to inform education policy is examined. A range of studies describable as story or personal narrative is investigated. They include life-studies, life-writing, life history, narrative analysis, and the representation of lives. We use ‘auto/biography’ as a convenient way of grouping this range under one term. It points to the many and varied ways that accounts of self interrelate and intertwine with accounts of others.  That is, auto/biography illuminates the social context of individual lives.  At the same time it allows room for unique, personal stories to be told. We do not explicitly discuss all the different forms of auto/biography.  Rather, we investigate the epistemology underlying personal story in the context of social action.  We discuss the circumstances in which a story may validly be used by educational policy makers and give some examples of how they have done so in the past.

Griffiths, Morwenna. (2009) Critical Approaches in qualitative educational research. Accessed on-line at http://www.bera.ac.uk/critical-approaches-in-qualitative-educational-research  These pages are designed to engage researchers with issues of critical research design and data analysis in a range of educational contexts. ‘Critical research’ is not a tidy category. In these pages it is taken to mean, roughly, research which aims at understanding, uncovering, illuminating, and/or transforming how educational aims, dilemmas, tensions and hopes are related to social divisions and power differentials. Research in this area entails paying attention to fundamental issues of epistemology, truth, validity, perspective and justice. While researchers agree as to the relevance of these issues, they disagree about how they relate to power and social context. These pages provide an introduction to this complex area.  Each page includes a brief introductory section, usually followed by further explanation of key concepts. Further guidance is provided in the form of references, including, where available, full texts of articles as pdfs or Word documents

Morwenna Griffiths, ‘Action research for/as/mindful of social justice’ in Bridget Somekh and Susan Noffke (eds.) Handbook of Educational Action Research, Sage (2009). This chapter examines and explores the potential of action research to enhance social justice in education. It discusses different approaches and practices within the field of education in relation to epistemologies and principles underlying research for social justice. Implicit in many characterisations of action research is the potential to work for justice - in small scale projects or for larger social and educational ends. At the same time, disquiet has been expressed by many action researchers about the co-option of action research for merely instrumental ends, or for purposes of social control rather than of social justice. The chapter addresses the question: when and how far is action research coherent with aims for social justice?

Morwenna Griffiths and Hamish Ross, ‘Public space, participation and expressive arts’ in Bob Lingard, Jon Nixon and Stewart Ransom (eds.) Transforming Learning, Continuum (2008) This chapter explores if and how the arts can contribute to enabling young people to participate in public spaces and so to improve their chances of contributing to democratic process as adults. It draws on previously reported research in which it was argued that: (1) arts-based work in school has helped disadvantaged and/or disaffected children to engage in activities (both arts-based and others); and (2) to be able to lay the ground work for exercising voice and agency as they did so. (3) A further suggestion was made that such an exercise of voice and agency might enable children to learn how to participate in public spaces, and contribute to deepening democracy in their communities. This chapter draws on philosophical discussion and empirical evidence in order to explore the link between (2) and (3):  how schools might educate young people to engage with civic society and to take a full part in its democratic processes.  It argues that the arts based work creates particular kinds of public spaces in school, and goes on to explore the relation of such public spaces to the public spaces needed in adult life if social justice is to flourish. The formulation of this argument depends on a specific understanding of the term ‘public space’, one which is highly dependent on Hannah Arendt’s discussion of the term.

 

Morwenna Griffiths and Felicity Woolf, The Nottingham apprenticeship model: schools in partnership with artists and creative practitioners, British Educational Research Journal, 34 (4) 2008

Joan Cutting, Richard Easton, Tony Gemmell, Morwenna Griffiths, Neil Houston, Bob Kibble, Heather Malcolm, Jannet Robinson, Hamish Ross, 'Building a Research Culture in a Teacher Education Environment:  What kind of research culture do we want? And how do we get it?' European Conference on Educational Research, Ghent, September 2007

Morwenna Griffiths, ‘Being Naughty to be Good: Playing at/as being Authentic’ in Deborah Orr and Diana Taylor (eds.) Lessons from the Gynaeceum: Women Philosophizing — Past, Present and Future, Rowman and Littlefield (2007).     I draw attention to some underlying philosophical tensions  in identity politics about the possibilities of authenticity.  The arguments of identity politics show how identities are constructed in and against political formations such as gender. These arguments can lead in different, opposing, directions.  I argue, against all these suggestions, that authenticity and a connected self are possible for constructed, non-unitary selves - what I call a patchwork self.   My  argument draws on autobiographical narratives (including my own) using a methodology of critical distance from those narratives. A particularly useful narrative in this regard is Maria Lugones’ article, ‘Playfulness, “World”-Traveling, and Loving Perception’. Drawing on this, in connection with autobiographies of other migrant women, I consider the possibilities of play: playing tricks, playing the fool, and role playing. I draw a distinction between play and playfulness. It is noticeable that the idea of play is double-edged.  On the one hand playfulness has connotations of ease and innocence, while on the other play often requires a delight in being naughty, testing boundaries, and flouting expectations. I conclude by suggesting an easy, innocent playfulness may be a mark of achieved authenticity, but only in the context of a delight in naughtiness as a method of (re)achieving it. This is a survival technique in contexts of self-protective pretence and performance.

Morwenna Griffiths, What kind of research evidence should our leaders use? Scottish Educational Review, 40 (1) 2008

Morwenna Griffiths and Jean Barr, ‘The nature of knowledge and lifelong learning' in David Aspin (ed.) Philosophical Perspectives on Lifelong Learning, Springer Press (2007) This paper starts from the position that lifelong learning is more than is assumed in current policy rhetoric. This rhetoric focuses on training for a ‘knowledge economy’ in which all citizens play their part. We argue that this rhetoric depends on a view of knowledge as instrumental, individual and disembodied. Against this we propose a notion of knowledge as social, embodied and reflexive about its own roots in time and space. It is this notion that underpins the richer, more democratic notion of lifelong learning which we explore in this essay using examples drawn from various, diverse sites, especially museum and art education ‘from cradle to grave’.  

Morwenna Griffiths, (with Judy Berry, Anne Holt, John Naylor and Philippa Weekes) ‘Learning to be in public spaces: in from the margins with dancers, sculptors, painters and musicians' in Chris Gaine, Ghazala Bhatti, Yvonne Leeman and Francesca Gobbo (eds.) Social Justice and Intercultural Education: an Open-Ended Dialogue, Trentham 2007 This article reports research in three Nottingham schools, concerned with (1) 'The school as fertile ground: how the ethos of a school enables everyone in it to benefit from the presence of artists in class'; (2) 'Children on the edge: how the arts reach those children who otherwise exclude themselves from class activities, for any reason' and (3) 'Children's voices and choices: how even very young children can learn to express their wishes, and then have them realised through arts projects'. The research methodology was rooted in two modes of inquiry, philosophical investigation and action research. The article draws on this research to argue that arts-based work in school has helped disadvantaged and/or disaffected children to engage in activities (both arts-based and others), and to be able to lay the groundwork for exercising voice and agency as they did so. If social justice is to flourish there is a need for particular kinds of public spaces and a need to create conditions such that children can learn to participate in those spaces, whether or not they are comfortable with the usual settings for 'rational argument' or 'deliberative democracy'. It is suggested that arts-based education, in some forms, is one good way of creating these conditions.

Peter Bowbrick and Morwenna Griffiths, Girls’ Schooldays in Ruddington Remembered 2007) Ruddington, Nottinghamshire: Ruddington Village Museum

Peter Bowbrick and Morwenna Griffiths, Boys’ Schooldays in Ruddington Remembered 2007) Ruddington, Nottinghamshire: Ruddington Village Museum

Morwenna Griffiths, Judy Berry, Anne Holt. John Naylor and Philippa Weekes) Learning to be in public spaces: in from the margins with dancers, sculptors, painters and musicians, British Journal of Educational Studies (Special Issue on Social Justice) (54 (3) 2006. This article reports research in three Nottingham schools, concerned with (1) 'The school as fertile ground: how the ethos of a school enables everyone in it to benefit from the presence of artists in class'; (2) 'Children on the edge: how the arts reach those children who otherwise exclude themselves from class activities, for any reason' and (3) 'Children's voices and choices: how even very young children can learn to express their wishes, and then have them realised through arts projects'. The research methodology was rooted in two modes of inquiry, philosophical investigation and action research. The article draws on this research to argue that arts-based work in school has helped disadvantaged and/or disaffected children to engage in activities (both arts-based and others), and to be able to lay the groundwork for exercising voice and agency as they did so. If social justice is to flourish there is a need for particular kinds of public spaces and a need to create conditions such that children can learn to participate in those spaces, whether or not they are comfortable with the usual settings for 'rational argument' or 'deliberative democracy'. It is suggested that arts-based education, in some forms, is one good way of creating these conditions.

Morwenna Griffiths and Tony Cotton, Action research, stories and practical philosophy, Educational Action Research, 15 (4) 2007 This paper explores the use of practical philosophy in action research. It describes what ‘practical philosophy’ is and how it makes a connection between ‘theory’ and ‘practice’ – while never losing hold of either. It begins from the understanding that philosophy is rooted in social practices with philosophy in educational practices rooted in educational practice. The paper goes on to explore the use of stories as a way into the diversity of significant particularities. Finally the links are made between practical philosophy, stories and the notion of action research. The theme of social justice permeates.  It is an example of a theory-practice connection, and also it provides the underlying rationale for the approach. 

Morwenna Griffiths, ‘The feminization of teaching and the practice of teaching: threat or opportunity? Educational Theory 56(4) Fall 2006

In this essay, Morwenna Griffiths considers the effect of feminization on the practices of education. She outlines a feminist theory of practice that draws critically on theories of embodiment, diversity, and structures of power to show that any practice is properly seen as fluid, leaky, and viscous. Examining different and competing understandings of "feminization"— referring either to the numbers of women in teaching or to a culture associated with women — Griffiths argues that concerns about increasing number of women teachers are misplaced. She complicates the cultural question, observing that masculine practices have a hegemonic form while feminized practices have developed in resistance to these, and she ultimately argues that hegemonic masculinity, not feminization, is the problem because it drives out diversity. Griffiths concludes that the leaky, viscous practices of teaching would benefit from the increased diversity and decreased social stratification feminization brings to the profession.

Morwenna Griffiths, Joseph Windle and Margaret Simms ‘“That’s what I am here for”: Images of working lives of academic and support staff in D. Tidwell and L. Fitzgerald (eds.) Self-study and Diversity New York: Springer 2006

Morwenna Griffiths, A feminist perspective on communities of practice Socio-cultural Theory in Educational Research and Practice, Manchester, September, 2005

Morwenna Griffiths 'Being naughty: a play for justice?' Inaugural Lecture, Nottingham Trent University.

Morwenna Griffiths and Dina Poursanidou, ‘A self-study of collaborations among teacher educators’ Studying Teacher Education 1 (2) 2005 This paper describes a self-study of two collaborations. The first collaboration focused on an attempt to study the teaching of social justice issues to pre-service student teachers. The second collaboration was an attempt to understand why the first collaboration was only partially successful. The study charts the process of collaboration over two years. The methodology is highly reflective, depending primarily on sources that were seen as being significant in retrospect rather than collected with a sense of purpose. Data include emails, conversations noted at the time or remembered, notes made of discussions at conference presentations, and reflective journal entries. Conclusions are drawn with significance beyond this self-study. They include clarification of the nature of collaboration and the parts played by the role and personality of the collaborators, factors to be taken into account for success, reasons for collaboration, and the importance of focusing on the self who is inviting or persuading others to collaborate rather than on anyone else. Presented as a narrative in dialogic form, the paper demonstrates the growth of understanding over the period of the self-study and illustrates the development of one kind of collaboration among congenial colleagues.

Morwenna Griffiths and Tony Cotton, ‘Action research, stories and practical philosophyPractioner Research Action Research /Collaborative Action Research Network Joint Annual International Conference, Utrecht, November, 2005 This paper explores the use of practical philosophy in action research. It describes what ‘practical philosophy’ is and how it makes a connection between ‘theory’ and ‘practice’ – while never losing hold of either. It begins from the understanding that philosophy is rooted in social practices with philosophy in educational practices rooted in educational practice. The paper goes on to explore the use of stories as a way into the diversity of significant particularities. Finally the links are made between practical philosophy, stories and the notion of action research. The theme of social justice permeates.  It is an example of a theory-practice connection, and also it provides the underlying rationale for the approach.

Morwenna Griffiths, Joseph Windle and Margaret Simms ‘Academic and support staff: Images of three working lives in teacher education’ Fifth International Conference of the Self-study of Teacher Education Practices at Herstmonceux Castle, Sussex, July 2004

 Morwenna Griffiths and Felicity Woolf, Report on Creative Partnerships Nottingham Action Research for Creative Partnerships Nottingham  Published 2004

Morwenna Griffiths, in dialogue with Lis Bass, Marilyn Johnston and Victoria Perselli ‘Knowledge, social justice, and self-study’ in J. Loughran, M.L. Hamilton, V. LaBoskey and T. Russell (eds.) International Handbook of Self-Study of Teaching and Teacher Education Practices New York: Kluwer 2004 This chapter addresses the issue of professional knowledge and social justice. It is presented in dialogic form, as a conversation in four voices. The conversation is nterspersed with four case studies, each one written by one of the authors. The case studies illuminate, exemplify and resist the arguments within the conversation about self-study, social justice, and epistemology. The paper is divided into four broad sections. The first, “Social Justice and Self-Study,” looks directly at the links between social justice and self-study. It begins by considering the resistances and difficulties inherent in addressing social justice issues, and continues by seeking a definition for social justice. The second, “What Kind of Knowledge?”, looks directly at the nature of knowledge that is gained in self-study that is rooted in a concern for social justice. From a starting point of knowing ourselves as tellers of stories, it goes on to address ways of telling and listening to stories across divisive social boundaries and hierarchies. The third section, “Professional Knowledge” introduces the idea of "little stories and grand narrative,” exploring ways in which professional knowledge might be understood as "little stories” countering, disrupting, critical of and contributing to "grand narratives” of educational knowledge. The fourth section addresses the urgent and difficult question, "Why is There so Little Self-Study on Social Justice Issues?”

Morwenna Griffiths and Dina Poursanidou, ‘Collaboration and self-study in relation to teaching social justice issues to beginning teachersFifth International Conference of the Self-study of Teacher Education Practices at Herstmonceux Castle, Sussex, July 2004

Morwenna Griffiths, Joseph Windle and Margaret Simms ‘Academic and support staff: Images of three working lives in teacher education’ Fifth International Conference of the Self-study of Teacher Education Practices at Herstmonceux Castle, Sussex, July 2004

Morwenna Griffiths, Action for Social Justice in Education: Fairly Different Buckingham: Open University Press 2003 Social justice is a verb. This book puts forward a view of social justice as action orientated rather than as a static theory. Complex discussions of difference, equality, recognition, and redistribution are made accessible and relevant to issues of class, race, gender, sexuality and disability. Interwoven with the discussion are compelling individual accounts of the pleasures and pains, the pitfalls and glittering prizes to be found in education - told by individuals coming from a diversity of social, economic, and ethnic backgrounds. The second part of the book includes examples of successful interventions in real situations, related to self-esteem, empowerment, partnership, and the initiation of individual and joint action to improve social justice in education. The discussion is kept open through 'answering back' sections by educators committed to social justice: Deborah Chetcuti, Max Biddulph, Ghazala Bhatti, Roy Corden, Melanie Walker, Jon Nixon and Kenneth Dunkwu.

Morwenna Griffiths and Jean Barr, ‘Training the imagination to “go visiting”‘ in M. Walker and J. Nixon (eds.) Reclaiming Universities from a Runaway World Buckingham, Open University Press2003This chapter explores, in the context of university education, the nature of a public space that can accommodate and reconstruct ‘public knowledge’. We understand ‘public space’ to be a social space of interaction, rather than a location in physical or cyber space (though it may be that too). We understand ‘public knowledge’ to be that knowledge which is articulated and/or expressed by all, including those people who are routinely excluded from traditional public spaces. People require public spaces in which they can discover, construct, develop and reinterpret knowledge of various kinds, and, in some cases, use the knowledge to help resolve practical problems they face. The nature of these spaces is changing as society (including its schools and universities) evolves. We point out that the traditional theoretical frameworks of political philosophy are unable to deal with the complexity of social space in today’s society. They depend heavily on the notion  of the public ‘forum’ (or sphere), that is a space available to all citizens - accessible to them and usable by them. This notion is inadequate even within the limited context of Higher Education and its communities.  

Review comment in the British Educational Research Journal, 31 (3) 2005: Jean Barr and Morwenna Griffiths ‘find languages of hope’ and ‘make people central’, which is refreshing after the gloomy picture of the postmodern university in ‘Dark Times’. They foreground the need for inclusiveness in HE, and discuss Arendt’s notion of ‘training the imagination to go visiting’. They question the existence of clear-cut boundaries between public and private space, and celebrate the enrichment offered by enhancing permeability towards groups outside the academy, using new spaces with the potential to help university spaces ‘loosen up’.)

Morwenna Griffiths, ‘Ten principles of social justice in educational research:two cases of contract research’ Review Journal of Philosophy and the Social Sciences 27 (2) 2002

Morwenna Griffiths and Maxine Greene, ‘Feminism, philosophy and education: imagining public spaces’ in N. Blake, P. Smeyers, R. Smith and P. Standish (eds.) The Blackwell Guide to the Philosophy of Education Oxford: Basil Blackwell 2002.     We begin by explaining ourselves, if we can. This chapter is not “philosophy-asusual,” as ordinarily conceived. Perhaps it would be strange if it were, since, as we mean to show, feminism is precisely a way of rethinking the “usual.”  We need to explain ourselves, however, because our individual voices, perspectives, positions, locations, and social relationships – our situations – are irreducibly part of the ways we do feminist philosophy of education. We are fully aware that there is no one “feminism”; there are multiple points of view described as “feminist.” ... Striving to actualize the givenness of her being as a woman, to “make articulate and call into full existence what otherwise they would have to suffer passively anyhow” (Arendt, 1958, p. 208), each of us feel ourselves to be not only women but distinctive beings, whose uniqueness must be taken into account by any theory that is made or story that is told. The form of the chapter reflects this. Much of it is in dialogue; and the whole arose from dialogues carried out in letters and (often taped) conversations. After this preliminary introduction we present a short, assertive overview of feminisms in relation to philosophy (of education). This is followed by our two personal narratives of identity and philosophy of education. The last section is a brief demonstration of what a feminist approach to philosophy of education might be: we undertake this in relation to social justice.

Morwenna Griffiths and Joseph Windle, Helping teacher educators learn to research: bread and roses? Fourth International Conference of the Self-study of Teacher Education Practices at Herstmonceux Castle, Sussex August 2002

Morwenna Griffiths, ‘Questions of personal autonomy’ in K.W.M. Fulford, D.L. Dickenson and T.M. Murray (eds.) The Blackwell Reader in Healthcare Ethics Oxford: Basil Blackwell 2002.     I use the experience of women to investigate the concept of autonomy by looking at how it enters both into gender stereotypes and into mainstream philosophy. I consider how autonomy and independence appear in the subjective experience of women and in the way they live their lives. In doing so I develop an alternative model of autonomy which fits the experience of both women and men. Further, I argue that women have been asserting their autonomy and acting on these assertions. I then go on to suggest reasons why, in spite of such assertions, so many of us are still in positions where it is hard to act. The reasons are to do with the structures of violence which support masculine ways of understanding, and which constrain the possibilities of self-creation for both men and women.

Morwenna Griffiths, ‘“Nothing grand”: small tales and working for social justice’ in J. Loughran and T. Russell (eds.) Reframing Teacher Education Practices: Exploring meaning through self-study Falmer Press 2002

Deborah Chetcuti and Morwenna Griffiths, ‘The implications for student self-esteem of ordinary differences in different schools: the cases of Malta and England’ British Educational Research Journal 28 (4) 2002  This article explores self-esteem and its relationship with achievement and difference. It is written as an ongoing narrative between the two authors, who through their autobiographical conversations try to come to terms with the effects of ordinary (i.e. unexceptional, non-deviant) differences on self-esteem. Through a critical analysis of their own experiences as students, teachers, researchers and academics, the authors try to explore how differences are discursively constructed and how they might be reconstructed. The article is in three parts. It starts with an analytic enquiry of the construction of individual self-esteem. The authors argue that current orthodoxy about self-esteem is oversimplified because it focuses on an individual's response to personal achievement and to face-to-face social relationships. It is argued that the story must be much more complex and include issues of social justice. The second part uses qualitative data from Malta and England and autobiographical data in order to explore the relationship between self-esteem and the achievements and aspirations of students. The third and final part uses these results to construct a concept of 'ordinary difference' which celebrates individual and socio-political differences rather than tries to standardise them.

Morwenna Griffiths and Mitja Sardoc, The School Field: Special Issue on Justice in/and Education 2001/2 Educators, world-wide, recognise the importance of the topic of this two volume Special Issue of the School Field journal: ‘Social Justice in/and Education’. Everywhere, the hope of social justice is inextricably interlinked  with hopes of and for education. As Pádraig Hogan points out in the opening article, Plato made the link, most memorably, in The Republic. Recent attempts to link education, instead, to economic performance or to narrow measures of attainment, have only served to highlight the centrality of social justice to education, its purposes and practices. That this is no narrowly national concern is shown by the international profile of the contributors. They come from Australia, Canada, England, Ireland, Sweden, Pakistan and the USA. Nor are their discussions confined to their own countries of residence. The articles also focus on concerns in Botswana, Finland, Macedonia, Namibia, New Zealand, South Africa and Spain. In this regard it is probably significant that several of the contributors have evidently migrated between countries and their different educational systems.

Morwenna Griffiths, ‘Social justice for education: what kind of theory is needed?’ The School Field (Special Issue: Justice in/and Education) XII (1/2) 2001 The main question to be addressed in this paper is: ‘What is needed from a theory of social justice for education?’ In answering, I first make some remarks about its relevance and about the methodology underpinning the way I set about answering it. I argue for an approach I call ‘practical philosophy’. I go on to give a brief review of some standard philosophical accounts of ‘social justice’. I then describe an attempt to move forward from these accounts using a process which was designed to be an instance of ‘practical philosophy’, in that it enables me to do ‘philosophy as and with’ educational researchers. Some preliminary, possible (and certainly corrigible) results are presented. Finally in order to draw some conclusions I reflect critically on how much agreement they might command, and what implications should be drawn. A critical reflection follows which focuses on what is new, and what the implications might be for different theories of social justice, including my own (Griffiths 1998a, 1998b).

Morwenna Griffiths and Kenneth Dunkwu, Approaching Social Justice in Education: Theoretical Frameworks for Practical Purposes BERA (Review of Research) 2001

Morwenna Griffiths, ‘Theorising social justice for education’ Annual Conference of the Philosophy of Education Society of Great Britain Oxford April 2000

Morwenna Griffiths, Richard Winter and Kath Green ‘The academic qualities of practice: what are the criteria for a practice-based doctorate?’ Studies in Higher Education 25 (1) 2000

Morwenna Griffiths and Graham Impey, Working Partnerships: Better Research and Learning Nottingham Trent University 2000 We think some of the best, most productive, longest lived, and most useful educational developments come about through partnership. But partnerships are much easier to talk about than to do. They are also very difficult to keep going. The truth is that partnerships do not always work well, though the recommendations and policies of those involved in education, especially policy makers and decision makers at every level, often give the impression that partnerships can be set up and made to work easily, perhaps following a few simple guidelines. The idea behind the book is the belief that if we are, collectively, going to get better at doing partnership, we should start by understanding what works (and what does not) and what is worth doing. We believe that what is needed is more honest appraisal of real partnerships, what made them work (if they did) and what made them valuable (if they were). So we have in this book a number of accounts of partnerships which do just that.

Morwenna Griffiths, ‘Collaboration and partnership in question: knowledge, politics and practiceJournal of Education Policy (Special Issue: Philosophical Perspectives on Education Policy) 15 (4) 2000 Provides a framework for critiquing assumptions about the collaboration process, highlighting concepts of public space and power. Key issues are the private-public distinction and the "public space" metaphor. Collective spaces are made by groups (formal institutions or persons), who can debate with each other and act. (Contains 42 references.)

Morwenna Griffiths, ‘ “Nothing Grand”: Small tales and working for social justice’ Third International Conference of the Self-study of Teacher Education Practices at Herstmonceux Castle, Sussex August 2000

Morwenna Griffiths, ‘Playing at/as being authentic’ in J. Swift (ed.) Art Education Discourses: Leaf and Seed Birmingham:ARTicle Press 1999

Morwenna Griffiths, ‘Aiming for a fair education: what use is philosophy?’ in R. Marples (ed.) Aims of Education London and New York: Routledge 1999

Morwenna Griffiths, ‘Principles of social justice in educational research: the case of contract research’ The School Field X (1/2) (1999) Delineates small-scale contract-research principles predicated on an understanding of social justice and of research purposes, epistemological issues, and possibilities for ethical and political action. Principles embrace improvement, knowledge and learning, changed belief systems, collaboration and consultation, openness to other communities, reflexivity, and responsibility. Two cases are profiled. (24 references)

Morwenna Griffiths, ‘Towards a theoretical framework for understanding social justice in educational practice Educational Philosophy and Theory 30 (2) 1998

Morwenna Griffiths, ‘Telling stories about collaboration: secrets and lies?’ Second International Conference of the Self-study of Teacher Education Practices at Herstmonceux Castle, Sussex August 1998

Morwenna Griffiths, 'Telling Stories about Collaboration: Secrets and Lies?' Paper presented at BERA 1998 in the Symposium: Narrative/Fiction and the Art of Research

Morwenna Griffiths, Educational Research for Social Justice: Getting off the Fence Buckingham: Open University Press 1998 This is a book for all researchers in educational settings whose research is motivated by considerations of justice, fairness and equity. It addresses questions such researchers have to face. Will a prior political or ethical commitment bias the research? How far can the ideas of empowerment or ‘giving a voice’ be realized? How can researchers who research communities to which they belong deal with the ethical issues of being both insider and outsider? The book provides a set of principles for doing educational research for social justice. Theoretical arguments and the realities of practical research are brought together and interwoven. Thus the book is helpful to all researchers, whether they are just beginning their first project or whether they are already highly experienced.

Morwenna Griffiths and Margaret Whitford Feminist Perspectives in Philosophy London and Indiana: Macmillan, and Indiana University Press 1988 Philosophy and feminism have much to offer each other – although to date mainstream philosophy has largely ignored the debates of modern feminism. The papers in this book point out that philosophy is in urgent need of a feminist perspective. It is argued that not only political philosophy but also epistemology, ontology, philosophy of mind and ethics will be affected by the reconceptualisations that feminism proposes. These articles demonstrate in a variety of ways where bias occurs and how it might be redressed. They also show that redressing it is a matter of importance to feminists as well as to philosophers.

Morwenna Griffiths and Margaret Whitford, ‘Introduction’ in M. Griffiths and M. Whitford (eds.) Feminist Perspectives in Philosophy London: Macmillan, and Indiana University Press 1988

Morwenna Griffiths, ‘Feminism, feelings and philosophy’ in M. Griffiths and M. Whitford (eds.) Feminist Perspectives in Philosophy London: Macmillan, and Indiana University Press 1988

Morwenna Griffiths, David Bridges and Wilfred Carr Cambridge Journal of Education: Special issue on Philosophy and Educational Research 1997. Papers have been contributed from both sides of the institutional divide between 'philosophy of education' and 'educational research'. Papers by Bridges, Griffiths, Carr and Gore address the question of the divide, challenge the epistemological and metaphysical assumptions which have allowed it to develop and consider how it should be repaired or spanned. Other papers address the question by example, demonstrating various ways in which the connections can be made. Blake, writing from the perspective of philosophy of education, and Wilcox, from the perspective of educational research, each show how the ideas of a philosopher (Habermas and Maclntyre respectively) can illuminate current concerns in education and they use both empirical and philosophical material to do so. Siraj-Blatchford & Siraj-Blatchford address the issue of reflexivity, which features centrally in both philosophy and educational research. Haywood & Mac an Ghaill demonstrate how methodological writing borrows from philosophy. Burbules shifts the focus to the relationship between the form and content of educational scholarship.

Morwenna Griffiths and Margaret Whitford, Women Review Philosophy: New Writing by Women in Philosophy Nottingham University 1996 The papers in this special issue of Women’s Philosophy Review demonstrate that feminist philosophy in Britain is flourishing. Some of the authors are already well-known; others are newer in the field. The combination makes for an interesting and varied set of papers. People outside the area tend to think that ‘feminist philosophy’ is a broadly homogeneous subject area, but these papers show otherwise. They come for right across the landscape of contemporary philosophy. Feminist philosophy finds its home wherever philosophers are working, in all branches of philosophy and whatever their philosophical approach – whether drawing more on analytic, or more on post-structural and postmodern approaches.

Morwenna Griffiths, Feminisms and the Self: The Web of Identity London and New York: Routledge 1995 What does the politics of the self mean for a politics of liberation? Morwenna Griffiths argues that mainstream philosophy, particularly the anglo-analytic tradition, needs to tackle the issues of the self, identity, autonomy and self creation. Although identity has been a central concern of feminist thought it has in the main been excluded from philosophical analysis.
Feminisms and the Self is both a critique and a construction of feminist philosophy. After the powerful challenges that postmodernism and poststructuralism posed to liberation movements like feminism, Griffiths book is an original and timely contribution to current debate surrounding the notion of identity and subjectivity.

"The idea of using autobiographies as material for philosophical reflection turns out to be brilliantly justified." - Margaret Whitford

"The positioning of the emotions at the centre of the account is most welcome, and the book is written with the anchorage in experience and sensitivity to differences we hope for from the best feminist theorists." - Kathleen Lennon

Morwenna Griffiths, ‘Feminist perspectives on the use of life narratives in a primary classroom’ in D. Thomas (ed.) Teachers’ Stories Buckingham: Open University Press 1995

Morwenna Griffiths and Carol Davies, In Fairness to Children: Working for Social Justice in the Primary School London: David Fulton 1995 How can one best work for justice and empowerment in the ever-changing, real-life messy world of primary school classrooms? Written by a full-time teacher and an action-researcher, this book points out opportunities to work for fairness for all children and teachers.

Morwenna Griffiths, ‘Self-determination and learning to be cruel: gender, race and the construction of self in relation to bullying and harassmentEuropean Journal of Women’s Studies 98 (2) 1998

Morwenna Griffiths, ‘The discourses of social justice in schoolsBritish Educational Research Journal 24 (3) 1998 Argues that it is possible to use and build on contemporary theoretical and practical discourses surrounding issues of social justice to improve schools. Describes a method of formulating, in conjunction with practitioners, a set of theoretically-informed social-justice principles for managing schools.

Morwenna Griffiths, ‘Towards a theoretical framework for understanding social justice in educational practice’ Educational Philosophy and Theory 30 (2) 1998

Morwenna Griffiths, ‘Why teachers and philosophers need each other: philosophy and educational researchCambridge Journal of Education (Special Issue: Philosophy and Educational Research) 27 (2) 1997 Presents an argument about the relationship of philosophy to teaching and the way each could inform and change the other. Rejects a metaphor of philosophy as a disconnected map for practitioners; argues that this is unhelpful and that a means of communication between the two areas must be found.

Morwenna Griffiths, ‘Know thyself: philosophy/self-study’ First International Conference of the Self-study of Teacher Education Practices) Herstmonceux, Sussex August 1996

Morwenna Griffiths and Carol Davies, ‘Insults and injuries: bullying and harassment in primary schools’ Current Research in Early Childhood 79 (Spring) 1996

Morwenna Griffiths and Carol Davies, ‘Learning to learn: action research from an equal opportunities perspective in a junior school’ British Educational Research Journal 19 (1) 1993  The project described is action research into pupils' learning in a (years 5 and 6) class of a primary school, which was carried out by the class teacher and an eduction lecturer, in partnership. While the focus of the research was on the processes of pupils' learning, the overriding research question was the possibility of improving equality of opportunity for pupils in a socially and racially mixed classroom. The resulting innovative, participative methodology is discussed. It is argued that the pupils were empowered by their involvement in the setting up of the research and in drawing conclusions from it. This process is described, and the effects on the children's ability to learn and reflect on their own learning needs are reported. Finally, the question of how far research of this kind should be extended to an explicit focus on race, class or gender is raised.

Morwenna Griffiths, ‘Making a difference: feminism, postmodernism and the methodology of educational researchBritish Educational Research Journal 21 (2) 1995 Reviews and describes different versions of feminism and postmodernism. Reviews the current debate about the challenges that the two sets of theories offer to traditional epistomologies. Concludes with suggestions about the influence of feminism and postmodernism on educational research.

Morwenna Griffiths and Barry Troyna, Anti-racism, Culture and Social Justice in Education Stoke: Trentham 1995

Morwenna Griffiths, ‘Auto/biography and epistemologyEducational Review 47 (1) 1995 The focus in this paper is on the epistemological status of a range of methods used in educational research and teacher education which may be called (auto)biographical. On the one hand the epistemological soundness of such methods is in question, while, on the other hand, traditional epistemology itself is also in question as a result of a range of challenges, including those coming from feminism. This paper focuses on the challenge from feminist epistemologies. It is argued that feminists have demonstrated that reliable knowledge can only be achieved through a process which includes, fundamentally, the subjectivity or experiences of individuals and groups of individuals; power and politics; and a dialectic of theory with individual experiences. It is further argued that (auto)biographical methods are well placed to include these factors, although not all (auto)biographies will do so. It is concluded that some, but only some, (auto)biographical methods are epistemologically sound. The confessional, apolitical and atheoretical ones are not so useful as those which take account of politics and theories for public purposes.

Morwenna Griffiths and Marie Parker-Jenkins, ‘Methodological and ethical dilemmas in international research: school attendance and gender in GhanaOxford Review of Education 20 (4) 1994. The paper considers questions of ethics and methodology in international research. An action research project designed for Ghana/UNICEF as part of a consultancy on school attendance is used as a case-study from which to examine the ethical dilemmas facing consultants and their clients in educational research carried out as part of international aid. Ethical dilemmas of resourcing, ownership, accountability and self-interest are discussed by the English consultants. It thus has a double purpose. It both contributes to research on school attendance, and also furthers debate about methodology and constraints on it.  

Morwenna Griffiths, ‘Feminism, feelings and philosophy (selection)’ in D.C. Abel Fifty Readings in Philosophy New York: McGraw Hill 1994

Morwenna Griffiths, Christian Akwesi, and Marie Parker-Jenkins ‘International consultancy about action research: questions of methodology and ethics’ in P. Lomax and J. Whitehead (eds.) Accounting for Ourselves: Action learning, Action Research and Process Management University of Bath 1994

Morwenna Griffiths, ‘Autobiography, feminism and the practice of action-research’ International Journal of Educational Action Research 2 (1) 1994

Morwenna Griffiths, ‘Self-identity and self-esteem: achieving equality in educationOxford Review of Education 19 (3) 1993 Psychological and educational theories about self-esteem in education emphasise its dependence on achievement and/or self-actualisation. Government recommendations follow their lead. In this paper an alternative theory of self-esteem is developed, drawing on feminist explorations of the politics of identity. Experiences of 'belonging' and 'not belonging' are central to the theory. The theory of the self is compared with Liberal and Romantic theories, which underpin the achievement-oriented understanding of self-esteem. Conclusions are drawn about the relationship between the development of self-esteem of children in schools, and educational policies of social justice. It is argued that improvement of the self-esteem of minority or oppressed groups would result in their empowerment and is, therefore, a political, not a psychological, issue.

Morwenna Griffiths, ‘Educational change and the self’ British Journal of Educational Studies 41 (2) 1993

Morwenna Griffiths and Anne Seller, ‘The politics of identity, the politics of the self’ Women: A Cultural Review (Special Issue: Gendering philosophy) 3 (2) 1992

Morwenna Griffiths, Self-identity, Self-esteem, and Social Justice Nottingham: University of Nottingham 1992

Morwenna Griffiths, ‘Autonomy and the fear of dependence’ Women’s Studies International Forum 15 (3) 1992 Autonomy is often thought to be a problem for women. I suggest that the problem of autonomy is a problem for (some) men and that they wish their problems onto the rest of us. The difficulty of understanding autonomy and its related concepts of independence, dependence, individuality, etc., is exacerbated by the present structure of western traditions of thought, as shown by our language. Some things are difficult to say in it. Feminist theory and practice have helped to point up the contradictions and incoherence in masculine ways of talking. Language needs reclaiming. I shall describe how this may be done as part of a politics of reflection and action.

Morwenna Griffiths, ‘Feminist concepts of the practice of education’ European Conference of Women and Power, Mantua, Italy, 1992 (Published version in Italian)

 Morwenna Griffiths and Sarah Tann, ‘Using reflective practice to link personal and public theories’ Journal of Education for Teaching 18 (1) 1992

Morwenna Griffiths and Anne Seller, ‘The politics of identity, the politics of the self’ Women: A Cultural Review (Special Issue: Gendering philosophy) 3 (2) 1992  Morwenna Griffiths, Self-identity, Self-esteem, and Social Justice Nottingham: University of Nottingham 1992

Morwenna Griffiths, ‘Self-identity and self-esteem: implications for school policy and classroom practice’ Annual Conference of the Philosophy of Education Society of Great Britain Roehampton, April 1991   Psychological and educational theories about self-esteem in education emphasise its dependence on achievement and/or self-actualisation. Government recommendations follow their lead. In this paper an alternative theory of self-esteem is developed, drawing on feminist explorations of the politics of identity. Experiences of 'belonging' and 'not belonging' are central to the theory. The theory of the self is compared with Liberal and Romantic theories, which underpin the achievement-oriented understanding of self-esteem. Conclusions are drawn about the relationship between the development of self-esteem of children in schools, and educational policies of social justice. It is argued that improvement of the self-esteem of minority or oppressed groups would result in their empowerment and is, therefore, a political, not a psychological, issue.

Morwenna Griffiths and Sarah Tann, ‘Ripples in the reflection’ in P. Lomax (ed.) Managing Better Schools and Colleges: an action research approach Clevedon: Multilingual Matters 1991

Morwenna Griffiths and Kate Ashcroft, ‘Action research in teacher education’ in O. Zuber-Skerritt (ed.) Action Research in Higher Education Brisbane: Griffith University 1991

Morwenna Griffiths, ‘Action research: grassroots practice or management tool?’ in P. Lomax (ed.) Managing Staff Development in Schools Clevedon: Multilingual Matters 1990

Morwenna Griffiths and Kate Ashcroft, ‘Reflective teachers and reflective tutors: school experience in an initial teacher education course’ Journal of Education for Teaching 15 (1) 1989

Morwenna Griffiths and Richard Smith, ‘Standing alone: dependence, independence and interdependence in the practice of education’ Annual Conference of the Philosophy of Education Society of Great Britain Roehampton, and AERA in San Francisco April 1989 Independence and the related concepts of freedom and autonomy are key terms in philosophy of education. Teacher educators are keen on independence, but seem to hold different definitions of the concept, and these various definitions do not co-exist happily. The relative autonomy that one may be able to achieve is not to be had unless one acknowledges one's dependence. Without that acknowledgment, the independence that adults hurry toward and hurry their children toward, does not bring the adult solidity and security that were expected. Of course it is quite easy to get children to imitate and internalize the conventional models of independence, but this does not last because true autonomy requires that one have experienced and still be in touch with one's feelings of dependence.

Morwenna Griffiths and Margaret Whitford Feminist Perspectives in Philosophy London and Indiana: Macmillan, and Indiana University Press 1988.  Philosophy and feminism have much to offer each other – although to date mainstream philosophy has largely ignored the debates of modern feminism. The papers in this book point out that philosophy is in urgent need of a feminist perspective. It is argued that not only political philosophy but also epistemology, ontology, philosophy of mind and ethics will be affected by the reconceptualisations that feminism proposes. These articles demonstrate in a variety of ways where bias occurs and how it might be redressed. They also show that redressing it is a matter of importance to feminists as well as to philosophers.

Morwenna Griffiths and Margaret Whitford, ‘Introduction’ in M. Griffiths and M. Whitford (eds.) Feminist Perspectives in Philosophy London: Macmillan, and Indiana University Press 1988

Morwenna Griffiths, ‘Feminism, feelings and philosophy’ in M. Griffiths and M. Whitford (eds.) Feminist Perspectives in Philosophy London: Macmillan, and Indiana University Press 1988

Morwenna Griffiths, ‘Why philosophy needs feminism’ Cogito 3 (3) 1989.  Philosophers are usually much more likely to think that they are needed than needy. That philosophy needs feminism is a startling concept to many philosophers. Surely, many professional philosophers would argue, philosophy is a deeply neutral subject, with no room for points of view. It may, they would continue, become political, but only when it is 'applied'. Feminist philosophers deny all this: philosophy both as practised and in its content shows all the signs of being male-dominated and masculine.

Morwenna Griffiths and Richard Smith, ‘Standing alone: dependence, independence and interdependence’ Journal of Philosophy of Education 23 (2) 1989 In practice, in everyday talk and action, there is no doubt that teachers acknowledge the importance of other people. The class teacher who believes that primary children should work entirely on their own, that he should know as little as possible about their home backgrounds and that there is a set curriculum to deliver to each of them is not typical of primary teachers. (Tertiary education, teacher education not excepted, is far more likely to be like this.) Most teachers take friendship patterns very seriously, and attach importance to their own personal relationships with the children in their class. They are also likely to pay a lot of attention to the importance of the home, community and culture as an influence on the child. The importance of other people in the development of children remains, however, insufficiently acknowledged as far as the development of self and of knowledge are concerned. In literature, whether with a psychological or philosophical flavour, it is far more common to find ‘autonomy’ and its cognates posited as the end to which development tends than any recognition that most of us gladly choose a world in which our autonomy is constrained by personal relationships.

Morwenna Griffiths and Kate Ashcroft, ‘Reflective teachers and reflective tutors: school experience in an initial teacher education course’ Journal of Education for Teaching 15 (1) 1989

Morwenna Griffiths, ‘Strong feelings about computers’ Women’s Studies International Forum 11 (2) 1988 Women are becoming absent from the world of computers. The reasons for this are related to the way computers have become associated with technology. Technology and masculinity are also strongly associated. The lack of logic of these associations is examined, and their danger is noted. The danger arises because it is femininity rather than masculinity which is associated with feelings and personal relationships. Thus technology is taken to be unencumbered by feelings and emotions, mistakenly so. As feminist theory and practice makes clear, the unrecognised feelings push technological development in undesirable directions. Unless both the illogicality of the associations and their power are recognised, attempts to persuade women and girls to take up computing may do as much harm as good, strengthening the very associations which need to be weakened. Some strategies which would help women and girls enter the computing world are discussed. It is pointed out that any strategies that are tried need to be underpineed by three things: vigilance, subversion, and the creation of an alternative vision. Vigilance is needed to see what is going on: a continual critical monitoring of the changing scene. Vigilance should lead to subversion. Computer culture is man made and it needs to be feminised from within. However, criticism and subversion fail if no alternative is offered. An alternative vision is needed to see how else we could make the world.

Morwenna Griffiths and Margaret Alfrey, ‘Girls and computers in primary schools’ Journal of Curriculum Studies 20 (5) 1988

Morwenna Griffiths, ‘Teaching skills and the skills of teaching’ Journal of Philosophy of Education 21 (2) 1987

Morwenna Griffiths, ‘Hirst’s forms of knowledge and Korner’s categorial frameworks’ Oxford Review of Education 12 (2) 1986 Public policy on education is undergoing a number of significant changes. Hirst's theory of the forms of knowledge is influential in determining the direction of these. I consider his theory and examine its philosophical underpinning. I conclude that, in the absence of any other clear demonstration or argument, Hirst must be relying on Korner's analysis of categorial frameworks. I show that Korner's analysis only partly supports Hirst's theory. Further, I show that, if Korner's theory is correct, Hirst's theory needs modifying. The modification has practical implications for educational policy. I argue that Hirst is right that children need to be introduced to knowledge dealing with a range of ultimate categorial concepts. However, unlike Hirst, I argue that knowledge is not to be reduced to verbal knowledge. I also argue that there are not a limited number of forms of knowledge. Indeed education should extend a cautious welcome to the new ways of theorising that arise from different sectors of society. Moreover, there is a difference between highly theoretical, abstract knowledge and less theoretical concrete knowledge, which is highly significant in any consideration of education 5-16, and which has  been overlooked in the theory.

Morwenna Griffiths, ‘Vigilance, subversion and imagination about computers’ The European Conference on Women, Natural Sciences and Technology, Aalborg, Denmark, 1986

Morwenna Griffiths, ‘Dunlop, expression and emotion’ Journal of Philosophy of Education 19 (2) 1985.   Francis Dunlop’s book, The Education of Feeling and Emotion challenges the prevailing orthodoxy on emotion that exists among philosophers of education. Such a challenge is long overdue. In the book, Dunlop moves away from those formulations of the education of emotions which were fashioned in the heyday of conceptual analysis, towards a more phenomenological account. He suggests possible ways of looking at feelings which have implications for priorities in education. All this is entirely welcome. This said, Dunlop has taken on an impossible task in writing the book. He has tried to provide a brief, readable survey of the field for beginners in philosophy of education, while at the same time raising profound questions which are new to the tradition of the field. This would have been hard enough. In addition, however, he has tried to raise these questions as part of a tradition quite unfamiliar to many English speaking philosophers of emotion, that of Continental, mainly German language, phenomenology.

Morwenna Griffiths, ‘Emotions and education’ Journal of Philosophy of Education 18 (2) 1984.   A new orthodoxy of emotion has replaced the ‘traditional view’ in which emotions and feelings were not considered to be rational. In contrast, in the new orthodoxy emotions are rational, cognitive, and related to logic and understanding. Little emphasis is put on occurrent feelings, experience, or consciousness. It is a useful counter to the view it combats, in which emotions are thought to be irrational, inexplicable, and unrelated to the understanding. However, the theory has serious shortcomings. The alternative I propose requires a reassessment both of emotion and of rationality. It reintroduces occurrent feeling, experience and consciousness. In Section One, I assert my initial position, firstly about feeling and emotion, and secondly about rationality. In Section Two I go on to show how this position leads to conclusions about emotions and education. I do this by discussing the relationship between rationality and feeling. This leads into a consideration of irrationality and its relationship to being emotional. As a result, it becomes possible in Section Three to achieve a greater exactness of terminology and to say more precisely what is meant by an emotion. Finally, on the basis of the analysis, some examples of the implications for education are given in Section Four.

 

 

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